When it comes to how it modifies the standard indicative verb complex, there really is no differentiation between the perfect mood and the imperfect mood. This is similar in Semitic languages like Arabic. This Arabic language mood is called marfu and is typically used in the nominative case and the indicative mood.

This is the same with a Pimzarblan verb complex.

As far as the verbalizers used in this language, they have their real-world roots in Ngarla, which is of the Pama-Nyungan family and was spoken in Western Australia. The only difference being that the verbalizers in that language make use of movement and position through a spatial aspect. For example, words such as “to put” and “to carry” are lexicalized as Ngarla verbalizers.

The only movements and positions that Pimzarblan verbalizers encapsulate are ones involving temporal aspect. Specifically, it involves tense and habits. While the verbalizer +gweingso refers to a verb within the state of “will always,” the verbalizer +walba refers to the verb as being in a state of “is for a moment.”

When it comes to the verb used in its infinitive form, unlike Romance languages which are typically used when being juxtaposed with a previous, conjugated word, such as the case in: “They walked to find the missing object.” In that case, the subjunctive case is used in Pimzarblan. Infinitives and root-words in general have usages beyond their meanings which can be found in other languages. This is seen with English where infinitives are the default 1st- and 2nd-person singular conjugation; or Nahuatl, where a root noun has predicativity without the nominalization anterior +tl.

In Pimzarblan’s case, the infinitive verb is typically used for a passive, present tense, specifically for derivational relative clauses, as previously discussed in the 5th installment. It has the same meaning as “tends to…” By using this tense, it informs the speaker and listener that the action of the derivational relativized noun is a tendency and is characteristic of that noun, whereas any verbalizer affixed to the infinitive would impose conditions or time limits upon that noun.

A way to make a past or future passive voice is by adding only one temporal verbalizer without the momentary verbalizer.

For example, while tnquo:rlb refers to a builder, it refers to a builder who is active at whatever point in his life at the present as the speaker is speaking. However, tnquo:rfangrorlng would refer to a retired smith, since the removal of the middle tone would give us the meaning “he-who-tended-to-forge.” This implies that the tendency of the man to forge is past tense, meaning he is not as active in forging as he used to be.

Another example is:

Eingralng tamogro.

[3rd.plur.subj.[to bring].verbal.past 3rd.sing.obj.loc.[with]]

We tended to bring it.

This brings up the question: If that is the case, then if the temporal verbalizer +lba is used, would that not also provide the same passive, present tense as the infinitive verb?

Perhaps. It would depend upon which dialect you would be referring to. In the market-based dialects, the infinitives would be used more often; whereas the prestigious dialect–Golden Pimzarblan–would use the +lba.

I also just noticed that I have been using the locative verbalizer anteriors only for nouns and pronouns, and not for the verbs they were originally intended for. Of course, in Golden Pimzarblan, it would be the case that they would not be locative verbalizers, but locative nounal anteriors. Perhaps in other dialects, the locative anteriors would be used to modify the verb complex along with the temporal and momentary verbalizers, but that would be another installment.

Sources

  • Curzan, Anne and Michael Adams. “How English Works: A Linguistic Introduction.” 3rd Edition. Pearson. 2012.
  • Launey, Michel. “The features of omnipredicativity in Classical Nahuatl.” STUF-Language Typology and Universals 57.1 (2004): 49-69.
  • Wikipedia
    • Arabic Verb
  • Wiktionary
    • مرفوع
  • Westerlund, Torbjörn (2015). A Grammatical Sketch of Ngarla (Ngayarta, Pama-Nyungan) (PDF). Asia-Pacific Linguistics; A-PL 16. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.

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